Terminology and Language Issues

Terminology Problems

In different models of the same species, parts with similar names may only denote roughly the same tissues.
In GALEN:     Lobe of left lung

Maps in FMA to:     Upper Lobe of left lung
Lower lobe of left lung

More of a problem is that in anatomical models of different species, parts with the same (or similar) names do not always denote homologous tissues:
In Mouse “tail”
(posterior extension of the spine)

In C.Elegans “tail”
(male sex organ)

The model species we are comparing have many anatomical parts. For
example, Mouse has 3559 anatomical parts, Drosophila has 506
anatomical parts, and C. Elegans, 242 anatomical parts.

Does the language used in terminologies and anatomical ontologies suggest what parts may be similar? Yes. But not directly – context is crucial. The entire series of names from root to leaf node is needed to ground terms that are themselves underspecified. Grounding refers to connecting natural language expressions such as mouse tail, with a model of the world. In this case, the model is a mouse ontology.

Context is the key to clarifying terms such as “tail”. If you look at the paths for tail in Mouse and C.Elegans, its clear that they are different:
Path name in Mouse:
embryo
tail
nervous system
peripheral nervous system
segmental spinal nerve

Path name in C.Elegans:
organ_system
sex-associated system
male-associated system
male tail
hypodermis
fan hypodermis

Language processing techniques are used to help compare anatomical part names across species. They include:

a.     Normalizing terms to limit the effect of different descriptive styles.
b.     Comparing content words by removing stop words.
c.     Ensuring comparable forms of words by stemming and lemmatizing.
d.     Results are then treated as an unordered set.

The results of the language processing experiments show that the lexical suggestions were indicative of structural support in 75% of the comparisons.

Researchers at Heriot-Watt University and the University of Edinburgh have been collaborating on projects relating to an on-line anatomy and genomic databases for a number of years. This record of collaboration was an important factor in obtaining funding for this joint project from the BBSRC.

The XSPAN project aims to support cross-species access to tissue-based genomic information through the development of an internet based cross-species anatomy network.

An ontolgy browser, COBrA has been developed and used to author mappings which are then uploaded to the XSPAN server.

The network provides interoperability between anatomy databases of the key model embryos, which will, in turn, facilitate access to gene expression and other tissue-based data across species, and to other genomics and proteomics resources.

The overall objective of XSPAN is to support cross-species access to tissue-based genetic information through the development of an internet-based cross-species anatomy network, i.e. a cross-species anatomy ontology integration system.

This system will provide interoperability between databases of key model embryos which will, in turn, facilitate access to gene expression and other tissue-based data across species, and to other genomics and proteomics resources.

XSPAN is a joint project between the School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences at Heriot-Watt University, and the Schools of Biomedical Sciences and Informatics at the University of Edinburgh.

XSPAN is funded by the UK’s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)

You just have to select to become a component of this church as well as they will certainly direct you in producing a stronger family members as well as community. Exactly what do you think your purpose in life will end up being when you have a little advice from God and also the Baptist church?

When the tidal wave hit as well as the church stepped in, they were there to assist others that were experiencing. You can be a part of it. You do not need to stay clear of celebrating the life that Jesus lived if you get on holiday in Japan. Full time locals and also new site visitors are constantly welcome for the English-Japanese service church in Sendai. You will certainly hear the solutions in both English and also Japanese.

In a world that is kind of crazy, wouldn’t it be nice to consult with others in your area that have the same beliefs as you do? That is exactly what the English service church in Sendai could aid you locate that type of community. It is a location you can go to share your Baptist faith with others that rely on Jesus as long as you do. Just how much would certainly you appreciate locating tranquility in a busy globe?

How would you prefer to come to be a component of their efforts to show God’s love with those that need it the most? Would you want to share food and reveal your compassion to and for the people that are injuring and shed without it? They need you to show them you care. The Sendai church becomes part of the FCBC Singapore and also it is also a component of the Baptist confidence.

One of the major points that you will observe different regarding the English-Japanese service church in Sendai is that services are held on Saturday. With each other they still bring faith to the Kesennuma location as well as people.

Are you prepared to experience a brand-new faith in your church? Are you prepared to become a component of the English-Japanese service church in Sendai to see exactly what you have been missing out on out on? It truly is a terrific method to discover the faith you have actually constantly had as well as gain faith in various other locations of your life.

There is an English service church in Sendai that supplies solutions in both languages as well as aiding others that are in need. They are a church that plays an active role in bringing more faith and more benefits to the people of Japan and the bordering areas.

The English service church in Sendai likewise supplies fun tasks throughout the year. Wedded pairs can additionally take component of these events on a different night and also learn with each other exactly how to end up being a much better pair by recognizing the main differences between just how each of them assume.

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A forklift can profit any individual that handles a great deal of stock at one time and fortunately is that you can constantly discover a great forklift up for sale or a reputable forklift for service. It will certainly be an advantage for your workers as well as your service if you a minimum of think about the alternative of buying or renting out. Renting out or acquiring also depends on how much you are prepared to spend into making life less complicated as well as just how long you may require it for.