Terminology and Language Issues

Terminology Problems

In different models of the same species, parts with similar names may only denote roughly the same tissues.
In GALEN:     Lobe of left lung

Maps in FMA to:     Upper Lobe of left lung
Lower lobe of left lung

More of a problem is that in anatomical models of different species, parts with the same (or similar) names do not always denote homologous tissues:
In Mouse “tail”
(posterior extension of the spine)

In C.Elegans “tail”
(male sex organ)

The model species we are comparing have many anatomical parts. For
example, Mouse has 3559 anatomical parts, Drosophila has 506
anatomical parts, and C. Elegans, 242 anatomical parts.

Does the language used in terminologies and anatomical ontologies suggest what parts may be similar? Yes. But not directly – context is crucial. The entire series of names from root to leaf node is needed to ground terms that are themselves underspecified. Grounding refers to connecting natural language expressions such as mouse tail, with a model of the world. In this case, the model is a mouse ontology.

Context is the key to clarifying terms such as “tail”. If you look at the paths for tail in Mouse and C.Elegans, its clear that they are different:
Path name in Mouse:
embryo
tail
nervous system
peripheral nervous system
segmental spinal nerve

Path name in C.Elegans:
organ_system
sex-associated system
male-associated system
male tail
hypodermis
fan hypodermis

Language processing techniques are used to help compare anatomical part names across species. They include:

a.     Normalizing terms to limit the effect of different descriptive styles.
b.     Comparing content words by removing stop words.
c.     Ensuring comparable forms of words by stemming and lemmatizing.
d.     Results are then treated as an unordered set.

The results of the language processing experiments show that the lexical suggestions were indicative of structural support in 75% of the comparisons.

Researchers at Heriot-Watt University and the University of Edinburgh have been collaborating on projects relating to an on-line anatomy and genomic databases for a number of years. This record of collaboration was an important factor in obtaining funding for this joint project from the BBSRC.

The XSPAN project aims to support cross-species access to tissue-based genomic information through the development of an internet based cross-species anatomy network.

An ontolgy browser, COBrA has been developed and used to author mappings which are then uploaded to the XSPAN server.

The network provides interoperability between anatomy databases of the key model embryos, which will, in turn, facilitate access to gene expression and other tissue-based data across species, and to other genomics and proteomics resources.

The overall objective of XSPAN is to support cross-species access to tissue-based genetic information through the development of an internet-based cross-species anatomy network, i.e. a cross-species anatomy ontology integration system.

This system will provide interoperability between databases of key model embryos which will, in turn, facilitate access to gene expression and other tissue-based data across species, and to other genomics and proteomics resources.

XSPAN is a joint project between the School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences at Heriot-Watt University, and the Schools of Biomedical Sciences and Informatics at the University of Edinburgh.

XSPAN is funded by the UK’s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)

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The International Baptist church in Yokohama agrees to give anything that they could to anyone, both members and non-members if needed. Individuals who have actually been touched by calamity or require a prayer sent out for their family could ask for it. Nevertheless, there are other factors you may want to take into consideration reaching the church. You can come to be an inspiration to others if Jesus has actually impacted your life in some way. You are invited to share your story.

Can you believe of anything even more fulfilling compared to having a church in your community that is willing to aid youngsters who come from a reduced income family? The Baptist church is able to do that.

The English church Yokohama is not just for one group of individuals. If you wish to celebrate and also share your love of Jesus, you are welcome. You will quickly find that not also the language will be a barrier. Services are offered in Japanese, yet there is an English translator there. It makes it easy for every person, also those that are new to the location, that want to make the effort to hope and help others in the community. This is enabled so that you do not need to quit your religion even if you relocated as well as lots of people are really glad for it when they come to Yokohama

Do you take pleasure in commemorating Jesus via tune? At the International Baptist church in Yokohama at fcbcyokohama.org, you will have the opportunity to celebrate in that method and others.

In Yokohama, the services are as simple to participate in as they are enjoyable. There are services held on Sunday, however they happen in the mid-day. At other times during the month, there might be solutions held for unique events, such as performances, along with times to come together with those in the church to speak about Jesus or concerns that are pestering the neighborhood.

Everybody has troubles that they are taking care of. It belongs of life. There are individuals we enjoy getting ill or harming. There are times when all-natural calamities strike and people take nature right into their own hands to bring disaster to families all over. If you want to leave your difficulties behind and also discover a way to hope that much better days are coming; you might intend to turn to the church. The International Baptist church in Yokohama is right here to confirm that you could be a component of something terrific, also during these troubling times. Are you all set to give your troubles to Jesus?

Celebrating the life that Jesus lived and the way he sacrificed himself for our transgressions is not something that should just be done on Sunday. At the English church Yokohama, you could be a part of a church that lives their entire life showing their love of Jesus. They want in order to help individuals both inside and out of the church. They assist areas that are both near and far if they are battling with a catastrophe. They take a trip to educate and assist those who could have lost their life’s work. You could take part in it if you want to.

Are you trying to find a method to show your love of your community and your neighbors? In this area, you will certainly also have the possibility to reveal your love for Jesus and also commemorate the life that he lived. If so, the International English church Yokohama is the location for you to be. You can become a participant as well as attend commonly or simply stop by sometimes to share your tale. The selection is yours. Either way, you will certainly be amongst buddies.

The church identifies that there are holidays throughout the year as well as they take part in celebrating them by offering food and solutions to those that require them one of the most. At the International Yokohama Church, anything is cause for helping out individuals in their community, whether it is giving food to family members that may not have much or just commemorating the birth of Jesus on Christmas by permitting them to share it with family and friends in the church.

With God as a part of your life, you could do anything that you want to do. You could enhance your conditions anytime that you are ready to rely on Him. The International Yokohama Church can assist you to see your means with. They could aid you obtain an idea of exactly what God’s best strategy is for you in this life to make sure that you live up to your complete capacity and attain more than you ever before visualized. It happens for all church participants eventually. The young and careless ended up being the stable adults that they were supposed to become with households of their very own to elevate. Would not you intend to really feel that type of adjustment to come to be far better compared to you were?

Throughout some natural catastrophes, like in Japan, many individuals shed their houses. They lost whatever that they had as well as there were likewise those that shed their lives. The church existed in order to help them through the difficulties that were before them to provide hope and also strength. They aided others to realize that there was life after devastation if they relied on and also trusted in God during the most awful of times. It was difficult for every person, yet well worth it when the family members started drawing themselves back together.

Who would certainly you count on if the area that you were residing in was struck by a major catastrophe? Would you have the ability to resort to your regional church? Who is most likely going to be aiding its members? Or would you like it if an outside source was available in to assist everyone in your neighborhood see the light at the end of the tunnel? The International Yokohama Church is that kind of church. They are a group of volunteers that go above and also past the call of duty for not only their members, but those that are suffering in various other areas of the world.

The International Yokohama Church isn’t really simply a church that hugs the church, as well as it isn’t one that remains abroad. They do a little of both, going any place they are needed the most. In the house, they help their members conquer the vices that could be holding them back, quiting them from seeing the love that God has for them. For example, some participants concern them with wagering or addiction problems and via finding God’s love, they have the ability to obtain beyond the troubles. It is then, that they transform their lives around as well as discover better tasks, far better connections, and a much better life for themselves.

With a little assistance from the International Yokohama Church, anything is feasible for you. They can assist you on your trip to see God’s love and exactly what it could do for you. It does not matter where you have actually been, exactly what you have done, or anything else. With sufficient love, the only point that matters is that you end up right here. Is that very easy enough for you to do?

As with all churches, the objective of the International Church is to help you to commemorate the life that Jesus had, the sacrifices he produced you, and his return. It is with him that the church could build a more powerful community for everyone to live in. His love is there for you all, waiting on you to accept it and also see exactly what it can do for you.

The International Yokohama Church is a church that assists everybody that is in demand. They do it, even if it means they should venture outside of the church’s doors to assist individuals in other areas of the globe. Often, it is a group of volunteers together with the dedicated church staff that venture bent on those areas that have actually been hardest hit by natural calamities, like when the tsunami hit Japan and also finished the life of a great deal of individuals, destroying families as it went.

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New, custom made carpet rugs in Singapore will certainly thrill every person who comes by to see you. You can have rugs that are in a strong color or full-sized carpets that are a pleasurable mix of colors.

This is why many individuals concur that it is simplest to choose a brand-new full-sized rug or a throw carpet to give every room in your home a new appearance. Some individuals choose to maintain smaller sized rugs under tables and also others delight in having small carpets in their entryways or near their cooking area sink where they may spend a whole lot of time.

If you like strong and modern, you may appreciate the Adamant style rug. It is one of the boldest patterns and it is available in a selection of colors when you pick to shop custom made carpet rugs in Singapore.

Just how much time do you in fact invest thinking about the floorings under your feet? The majority of people, if they level, don’t think about it much. They spend more time thinking about their sofas as well as chairs, their bedroom furniture, and other decor than they do their floor covering, however this can be a mistake. Recuperating the flooring with brand-new, custom made carpet & rugs in Singapore is probably the easiest means to remodel an area without spending a fortune.

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The new, custom made carpeting & carpets in Singapore are covered by a complete satisfaction warranty to make sure that you enjoy with your acquisition which it fits the method you wanted it to. If you determine it correctly and pick the appropriate try to find your home, you will certainly not find much to complain around. Your brand-new carpet or carpeting will certainly be ready in a brief quantity of time and then not long after that, you will be in love with your residence around once more. Your youngsters will certainly have a brand-new rug to use and your feet will certainly have a soft place to step when you are walking around your home. What extra could you wish for?

If you are simply relocating into your new home, your rugs as well as rugs may not be your initial priority. If you have stayed in the same area for numerous years, opportunities excel; your house needs a little more making it feel as though it is where you intend to be. This is where custom made carpet & rugs in Singapore can aid you one of the most. They are the perfect option to updating a room and also making it look lovely throughout once more. You will certainly more than happy that you considered it and perhaps a new piece of furniture will certainly still be within your reach.

Cakes make a wonderful reward for a great deal of individuals. No matter when you take pleasure in consuming your cake, you will certainly be happy that you currently have accessibility to the best gula melaka pandan chiffon cake available.

When delighting in a gula melaka pandan chiffon cake; quality matters if you wish to absolutely be able to enjoy its distinct flavor. These cakes are made with natural active ingredients that might ruin quickly. Therefore, if you desire the best taste feasible, the flavor that you have pertained to get out of it, you have to consume it within a couple days and also keep it cooled during that time.

Do you enjoy the preference of sugar or butterscotch? Maybe you favor rich as well as great smoky flavors or maybe even having a tip of coconut in your treats. No matter which one you like; the best gula melaka pandan chiffon cake has it if it has actually been prepared the right way. It is a cake that is constructed from hand sugar and also extra virgin coconut oils so that you enjoy a really wonderful, all-natural dessert that will not leave you dissatisfied by any means.

People that enjoy eating the best pandan cake by Cheng’s 27 could also take advantage of other deals with that are available. If you have actually not had the satisfaction of enjoying them on your own, you may desire to ask regarding the various other treats that are made with the very same coconut sugars. They consist of kaya jam and gula melaka cookies.

These plants as well as blossoms are just what provide you the coconut hand sugar that is used in producing the best pandan cake. There are people that use these plants to prepare the sugar for their cakes from scrape.

Some cakes are very easy to cook. There are many individuals that really feel that it is simply opening a box and mixing, then baking momentarily. Those that delight in having a chiffon cake will certainly tell you that it takes a little more effort, especially if you are producing the gula melaka pandan chiffon cake. This sort of cake is usually developed utilizing dishes that have actually been passed down from past generations. They could take hrs to prepare as well as they are very easy to ruin. Do you want to invest your time preparing as well as baking or would certainly you instead allowed somebody else do it so you can merely enjoy it?

When you want a special reward that you can share with your households, you need to choose the best pandan cake. If you have never appreciated it sweetness, after that currently is a wonderful time to do so.

Every family members has a recipe that they might think about to be the best gula melaka pandan chiffon cake dish, yet still, individuals frequently prefer to buy a cake. It keeps them from having to invest their day in the kitchen area preparing it. They can avoid the threat of overbaking and having it end up also completely dry or messing up one part of the dish to ensure that it doesn’t taste the means it should. It is just less complicated to allow another person stress over for how long to whip the egg whites.

There are some extremely well-kept family members recipes are offered for you to enjoy. They make it so that you could delight in without ever before having to spend your time buying components or preparing your most favored jam. You could put your order today as well as within only 3 days you will certainly have the ability to pick up your favorite pandan kaya jam online. As soon as you go to home, you could place it on your treats and also make your own kaya salute as an unique treat or enjoy with your dishes.

Coconut jam is known by numerous names. The same is true for the amount of caramelization that you make use of when very first preparing the sugar for it.

To guarantee that you are just eating the finest kaya jam in Singapore, you have to maintain in mind that it is made with fresh, perishable products. This avoids the coconut milk from ruining and that you are obtaining the ideal flavor you can from the jam. This keeps whatever less complex while they go about their busiest days and might not have time to go to a dining establishment for kaya jam.

The best pandan kaya jam online is made by a family members that has actually handed downed a recipe that was developed generations back. It has actually been taste-tested by others throughout the years and frequently it is taken into restaurants that you must go to in order to appreciate it. There are individuals that are eager to offer kaya jam to you so that you can enjoy it in your own home when you want to. Are you all set to grab a jar for your family members?

Do you intend to invest a minimum of 4 hours preparing to get the best pandan kaya jam online or would you instead simply recognize that you are obtaining the very best? If you view on the internet, you will certainly locate various recipes that insurance claim to give you the very best. They have substantial components and a lot of mixing as well as stirring to get it done right. To include even more issue to it, if you mess up with any type of one action in the procedure, you could destroy the entire set of kaya jam.

What does it cost? do you love eating kaya jam? Exactly what do you enjoy consuming it on? When you take home the most effective kaya jam in Singapore, you can have your favorites when you desire them. You could enjoy it when you spread it on. No actual prep work included with it past spreading it. Can you visualize anything much easier than that? For lots of people, it is the only option that will allow them to avoid the kitchen area and also merely relish the flavors.

Kaya Jam is a wonderful reward that you could put on kaya toast or treats including pulut taitai. It can take hrs to prepare as you wait a warm cooktop to prepare it. When you select to acquire the best kaya jam in Singapore, it is all prepared for you making use of fresh pandan juice, eggs, and also, of program, coconut. Coconut milk provides it the pleasant, creamy look that you desire, as well as the sugar, eggs, as well as other active ingredients provide it the flavor that you like.

Fortunately, the best jam you will certainly ever before utilize is offered in your location. It is the finest kaya jam in Singapore and also you will be happy that you have had the enjoyment of taking a bite a real craftsmen joy.

You just have to select to become a component of this church as well as they will certainly direct you in producing a stronger family members as well as community. Exactly what do you think your purpose in life will end up being when you have a little advice from God and also the Baptist church?

When the tidal wave hit as well as the church stepped in, they were there to assist others that were experiencing. You can be a part of it. You do not need to stay clear of celebrating the life that Jesus lived if you get on holiday in Japan. Full time locals and also new site visitors are constantly welcome for the English-Japanese service church in Sendai. You will certainly hear the solutions in both English and also Japanese.

In a world that is kind of crazy, wouldn’t it be nice to consult with others in your area that have the same beliefs as you do? That is exactly what the English service church in Sendai could aid you locate that type of community. It is a location you can go to share your Baptist faith with others that rely on Jesus as long as you do. Just how much would certainly you appreciate locating tranquility in a busy globe?

How would you prefer to come to be a component of their efforts to show God’s love with those that need it the most? Would you want to share food and reveal your compassion to and for the people that are injuring and shed without it? They need you to show them you care. The Sendai church becomes part of the FCBC Singapore and also it is also a component of the Baptist confidence.

One of the major points that you will observe different regarding the English-Japanese service church in Sendai is that services are held on Saturday. With each other they still bring faith to the Kesennuma location as well as people.

Are you prepared to experience a brand-new faith in your church? Are you prepared to become a component of the English-Japanese service church in Sendai to see exactly what you have been missing out on out on? It truly is a terrific method to discover the faith you have actually constantly had as well as gain faith in various other locations of your life.

There is an English service church in Sendai that supplies solutions in both languages as well as aiding others that are in need. They are a church that plays an active role in bringing more faith and more benefits to the people of Japan and the bordering areas.

The English service church in Sendai likewise supplies fun tasks throughout the year. Wedded pairs can additionally take component of these events on a different night and also learn with each other exactly how to end up being a much better pair by recognizing the main differences between just how each of them assume.

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